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Do not allow practice in street shoes. If necessary to stow away make sure this is done properly and that there is no strain on any section. Do not allow two persons on the trampoline together, unless preparing for a special act. Miscellaneous Equipment. Keep miscellaneous equipment in cabinets or racks. Magnesium carbonate should be rubbed on hands before performing on apparatus. Resin, lump or rock, should be used on hands in rope climbing and on shoes or feet in tumbling.

Suspended equipment should be inspected bi-weekly to be sure the ceiling attachments of ropes, rings and high bars are secure. Equipment should not be used if there is any doubt as to its safety. The adjusting screws on the high bars and the parallel bars should be checked before each class.

The mats should be arranged properly around the apparatus. The deck should be cleared of hazardous objects. Hazards should be eliminated: When class is not in session, the use of previously setup equipment, such as springboards and vaulting braces must be forbidden. This policy protects the unskilled performer against attempting stunts beyond the range of his ability.

Springboards and trampolines should be locked against the wall and should be used only when competent supervision is available. Shallow pits filled with sawdust-oil combination. Horizontal Bars. About 7 feet long, and 7 feet 9 inches from the deck. Use 4" x 4" uprights with bottom support and two braces. For outdoors a bar may be made out of scrap pipe and placed in concrete, making a permanent fixture. Parallel Bars May be made of unadjustable wooden frame standard height. The hand rails should be oval-shaped, ten feet long and spaced eighteen inches apart.

Parallel bars also may be constructed from piping with collars or welding, using floor plate with collar. A wooden frame, with pipe for hand rail, also may be used. For outdoors. Either pipe or wooden hand rails mounted on pipe, or wooden structure mounted in concrete. Vaulting Box Build a vaulting box on a pyramid form and pad the top. Build in sections so the height approximately 5'6" from deck is adjustable.

A wooden horse may be made of half a log cut lengthwise, cleaned of its bark, and mounted rounded side up on four legs. Height approximately forty-two inches from the deck. Springboard The many uses to which the springboard can be put in conjunction with side horse, bucks, parallel bars and jumping standards make it very serviceable. Make the base of hickory and have it rubber shod.

Make the top board of narrow hickory strips and cover with cork carpet cemented on with the edges protected by flush wood moulding strips. Beat Boards Use with the horse, buck and parallel bars as a take-off. Make the top of narrow ash strips and cover with cork carpet cemented on and have the base rubber shod to prevent slipping on the deck. The edges of the cork carpet are protected by well rounded wood moulding strips on all four sides.

Hardwood cross cleats on the underside of the board are fastened by means of wood screws. Principles of Teaching Applicable to Gymnastics and Tumbling General psychological principles relative to teaching procedures will not be discussed here. Reference, however will be made to particular teaching principles that are pertinent to gymnastics and tumbling.

Qualifications of the Teacher of Gymnastics and Tumbling The teacher of gymnastics and tumbling should be able to apply all of the psychological principles of teaching, of which motivation is outstanding. In addition, he should be equipped with: 1. An adequate understanding of the physical and psychological development that is possible through gymnastics and tumbling. A knowledge of the proper gymnastic and tumbling nomenclature. A knowledge of progressively arranged strength-building exercises.

The ability to demonstrate various stunts. The ability to detect and correct errors promptly. The ability to maintain firm discipline and to hold the interest of the individual. An awareness of the importance of safety procedures. A sense of the need of economy of time. Every second of the class period should be used to advantage. An appreciation of good form and precise movement. Methods of providing for individual differences.

The superior performer should not be required to repeat work if he is ready for advancement. Methods of grading the achievement of the individual. If a grade scale is set up, it should challenge every member of the class. Methods by which problem-solving is encouraged, i.

Squad Leader System Gymnastics may be taught effectively on a rotating-squad plan. There should be about eight or ten individuals in a squad. Advanced squad members should have been given additional instruction which enables them to act as leaders of a squad. A large class thus can be handled in stations.

Each will alternate from the hang to the support activities as he proceeds with his squad from station to station. But the whole stunt, consisting of its many parts, should be demonstrated and described briefly The example of this principle. A challenge stunt and the performer becomes eager. Complete mastery of the whole stunt should follow with relative ease if the stunt is properly presented.

Progression from the Simple to the Complex Lesson plans should proceed progressively from the simple to the complex. Progressive lead-up activities should be given which contain elements identical with the desired end. Relatively complicated coordinations are part of almost all gymnastic feats, and in order that they may be learned correctly they should be broken down into parts and learned separately.

Slowed down movements slow. The Success-Failure Relationship Is Important Participants should not be allowed to practice too long without some success. It seems best, then, to teach moderately easy lead-ups, as previously mentioned, and in addition to provide an individual mat area even though small for each one or two performers.

Thus, the inevitable mistakes may be made without attracting undue group attention. Motivation Is Increased Through Exhibitions and Competition Motivation through competition and exhibition stimulates interest in gymnastics and tumbling, and provides added interest to the participants. Building Separate Stunts into Routines The competent performer should be encouraged to create routines that have continuity and unity instead of learning the set routines of the instructor. Program Should Be Varied but not Superficial Types of activity and their difficulty should be varied to obtain well-balanced development and to maintain interest.

However, it is equally important to do enough different tricks of the same type to contribute to the desired ends. Facilities, space, time, number in class and experience of the instructor will decide the selection of material. Working in Pairs for Safety and Quicker Learning Partner assistance in learning involves one person as a spotter who supports, guards and lends physical aid to the performer with a view to quicker learning and the relatively assured safety of the performer.

Spotting technique must be taught as well as performance technique. Spotting experience is as valuable as practice experience since the spotter must. Each student should have repeated opportunities to serve both as performer and as spotter. For all but a few of the more dangerous of the elementary tricks, hand spotting without belts or ropes is most effective and a time saver. Suggested Class Procedure 1. First daygeneral explanation of class administration and of the activities to be taught: a. Acquaint class with apparatus.

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Acquaint class with safety procedures. Impress class with need of safety measures. Give short, comparatively light workout, in order to minimize unduly severe aftereffects of dizziness and stiffness. Warmup before each day's class: a. Limbering routine. Ropes and cargo net. Rolls forward and backward and dives. On the apparatus, warmup with some of the stunts that have been presented before.

Work in squads in sports program. Rotate squads to different apparatus so that they may work on the hang position and then proceed to the support position. In this way they will use different muscle groups. Instructional work should be on a squad leader basis until they have developed enough strength to work independently and with safety. Emphasis should be given to the need of strengthening the grasps, triceps and abdominal muscles. The class should be assembled in a semi-circular formation on the deck for the introduction of each new stunt.

In presenting a new stunt it should be described and demonstrated simultaneously. If the instructor cannot do the stunt, it may be executed by an outstanding student. Talk as little as possible. Teach in a positive manner wherever possible. The class should try the stunt. Give as much individual guidance as possible. Encourage the better performers to help those less efficient. If mistakes are being made, call the group together and make the necessary corrections. Those who are able to execute a stunt in proper form should have it checked for achievement.

The better performers should either help others in the class, or work on more advanced tricks. The instruction should be individualized as much as possible. Each one should be encouraged to strive progressively according to his potentialities. The opportunity for individual advancement is lost if the instructor uses the formal method which requires everybody to do the same thing.

A grade scale should encourage the learner to attain his utmost. Skills such as the handspring, and the handbalance should be taught, which the performer will want to practice in his spare time. Frequent short practice periods are much more effective in learning new skills than prolonged periods of practice. If apparatus has to be put away at the close of the period, students should line up for dismissal. Everybody should help to clear the deck. In stacking the mats, place them in pairs with the tops always togetherthe top is the smoother of the two surfaces; the bottom usually is dotted with tassels.

The working surface on top should be kept clean. In summary, a beginning gymnast may be stimulated to enthusiastic participation in the activity by: 1. The sincere cooperation of competent gymnastic teachers. The use of safe adequate facilities and proper equipment. The feeling of a prestige that accompanies the mastering of a stunt. The presentation of motivating challenges or goals.

The desire of the performer to stretch to the utmost of his capacity. The inclination of a "try-try again" spirit. The freedom from injury. The fosterage of courage and of initiative. The correct guidance in the wise use of his time. Capitalize upon the competitive element whenever possible. Safety Methods and Devices Safety in any sport depends upon wise administration, which takes the following control factors into account in setting up an environment conducive to best results. Efficient Use of Physical Plant Factors to be taken into consideration in achieving efficient use of the physical plant are the following: effective use of facilities and equipment; proper time allotment; proper selection and training of personnel; a well-designed gymnasium with adequate lighting and ventilation; regular maintenance, including daily inspection 'of equipment; proper financial support.

Effective Organization and Supervision Factors to be taken into consideration in achieving effective organization and supervision are the following: sufficient staff to handle the student load efficiently and safely; development of student leadership to aid in controlling the environmen: safely; provision for watchful supervision and proper guarding of the gymnasium at all times; removal of all hazards when program is not in operation; rigid enforcement of safety rules: A "Gymnasium Guard" should be used during free periods.

All hazards should be eliminated. Lock trampolines and springboards. Suspend rings and climbing ropes by pulleys. Progressive Conditioning Factors to be taken into consideration in regard to progressive conditioning are the following: physical fitness organic vigor equal to the task required; the development of adequate strength, endurance, power, agility, balance and flexibility; the judicious use of warm ups; an appreciation of the importance of sound physical condition for participation in gymnastic activities.

Effective Instruction Safety Development Desired. Knowledge of the condition namely: the strength, ability and aptitude of the individual and of the group as well as safety procedures. Good habits especially in regard to the overlearning of fundamentals. Skills equal to the task. Worthwhile attitudes, especially self-confidence in the performer. Appreciation of the importance of a well-prepared, conditioned readiness namely: essential strength, ability and condition for the task at hand. Safety Fundamentals for the Instructor 1. Remember that accidents in gymnastics and tumbling never "just happen" they are caused.

Enforce the safety fundamentals as listed for learners.

Gymnastics and Tumbling (Naval Aviation Physical Training Manual)

Strict adherence to safety rules. Stress need of individual responsibility toward safety. Daily inspection of apparatus: a. Inspect for faults. Inspect for proper adjustment. Inspect for obstruction hazards, e. Stress point that a stunt executed by the skilled performer is not easy. Progression from the simple to the complex must be recognized.

A performer should not try a stunt until he is prepared for it. Build strength and skill progressively. Practice fundamentals until mastered. Strive to develop self-confidence of the performer. Principles for the Learner 1. An appreciation of the value of progressive conditioning, strength, skill, coordination, and ability in gymnastics and tumbling.

Warm-up properly. Do not attempt a stunt beyond ability. Master the fundamentals. The value and necessity of relatively simple, though strength-building activities for the grasps and the triceps do not swing on the parallel bars until arms are sufficiently strong and the abdominals. The need to assist each other: a. Master the art of spotting by acting as performer and spotter respectively. Support classmate in order that he may experience kinesthetic feel of a new stunt and being supported in turn.

Assist in manipulating safety belt. A thorough knowledge of apparatus: a. Be able to recognize faulty apparatus. Be able to set up apparatus properly. Inspect apparatus each time it is used. Knowledge of proper placing of mats: a. Provide adequate mats around apparatus. Place mats on apparatus when helpful, e. If the individual masters lead-up activities to a difficult stunt he will not need a safety belt. In this way the performer learns to depend upon himself and great confidence is developed. Such a policy demands expert coaching. Replace mats to correct position if displaced by force of dismount.

Tie mats together for fast continuous tumbling. Ability to dismount properly from high bar and rings. Dismount on back end of swing when in extended position. Ability to fall properly. Taking a position of readiness to assist. Do not actually assist unless the need arises! Spotting and Guarding Cues for the Performer 1. Be sure to have a spotter for a new trick!

Do not depend entirely upon mat protection! Analyze the mechanical details of the stunt and have a spotter wherever a fall might occur! Do not be foolhardy! Do not jest with the performer until he has dismounted! Never change your mind in the middle of a stunt! The teaching of headsprings, necksprings, handsprings, round-offs, back handsprings, cartwheels, somersaults, and other highly specialized skills should bt supplemented with practical instruction in the art of tumbling or stumbling without injury. Athletes in specialized sports may prevent serious injury through mastery of tumbling or "breakfalling.

From the safety point of view, the breakfall, a simple but necessary part of training, is the most important single skill in athletics; yet, it is one of the most neglected areas of directed learnings. The viewpoint seems to have been taken that the art of falling will take care of itself. Falling is a part of all types of sports as well as everyday activity and, therefore, should be regarded as a necessary fundamental in the training of every individual.

Practically every sport is hazardous; certainly gymnastics may be considered so if it is not properly taught. Principles of Breakfalling Several principles should be remembered while practicing the art of breakfalling: 1. Give with the fall in a kind of controlled relaxation. Muscles under tension, therefore, act as a protection or splint for the bone, and by taking the injury themselves prevent more serious bone accidents.

The use of arms or legs to reduce the momentum of the fall. Cushioning the fall. Making use of "rolling. Falling forward, if possible, by turning head and shoulders. Keeping fingers pointed forward and chin on the chest when falling backward. Keeping chin to the side when falling forward.

It is suggested that the cadet: a.


Practice falling with each principle in mind until mastery of all has been obtained. Devote ten minutes every day to breakfalling as a part of a warm up, and overlearn it until it becomes automatic Types of Breakfalls Everybody, civilians and members of the armed forces alike, should know how to prevent injury when jumping, or landing feet first from a height; when falling forward from four different positions, namely: 1.

Head first. Parallel to deck in an extended position. Feet first with forward momentum. Hands and feet together. Barnes and Company, Inc. The breakfall may be varied by executing one-half turns in the air, and by jumping off the trestle backwards, followed by backward rolls. Falling forward head first with hips high permits the execution of a tuck and forward roll only if the hips are high enough.

If falling headfirst with legs directly overhead, the head must be forced upward to avoid breaking the neck. If the individual trips while running at full speed, he must resort to the slapping principle of falling often called the "Football Fall. A well-trained performer may catch himself on his hands, bend the arms at the elbows, and lower himself in an arched position. The chest first will make the contact with the deck followed by the abdominal region and then by the entire front of the body.

By forcing the shoulders forward, the back should be arched, the toes pointed. Pull back hard with the head and chest and attempt to swing the feet down and under the body. Forward and Downward Momentum. When falling from a height and the lean is too far forward for landing on the feet alone, and not quite enough to do a dive and roll, the performer lands on feet and hands at the same time.

If the momentum is in a sideward direction, for example, a football or a basketball player may reach for a loose ball he should tuck and execute a sideward roll. Start roll low rather than highThrow extended arms across chestRoll on shoulders rather than small of backKeep tucked all the time! If falling with the back to the deck, try to turn about in the air and face the deck. Cushion the fall with the hands, and at the same time roll sideward or forward.

If it is impossible to land on the feet, land on all fours, and cushion the body to the deck. The arms should be straight at the elbow and in a forward oblique position. Slap the arms to me deck as hard as possible, thus cushioning the body to the deck. The chin should be on the chest and the feet slightly in front of the head. A neck injury could result if the feet were beyond the vertical position.

The "stage" breakfall, as it is called, is used effectively in breakfall acts on the stage. Fingers pointed forwardHead to the side to protect the chinCushion the body to the fall by flexing arms. Chin on chestHands slightly behind hipsFingers pointed forwardHands hit deck before body! Teaching Procedure. It is advisable to first practice with a spotter who supports the performer's weight with one hand on the neck.

He places the performer's hand on the deck, slightly behind the hips, the fingers pointing forward. The heel of the hand should hit the deck first. This activity should stress the point that the attempt should be made to fall forward rather than backward. Jumping forward from a height with one-half turn and backward roll. Lean inward toward the fallKeep leaning forward on backward roll!

Summary In summary, a well-functioning program of gymnastics and tumbling may be conducted with a minimum of accidents if the following are emphasized: 1. The importance of spotting or guarding in the gymnasium. The performer should understand clearly that it is his own responsibility to be sure that he is spotted properly. The performer should not be foolhardy. The performer should never change his mind in the middle of a trick. The grasps, triceps, and abdominals of the performer should be built up through progressive strength-building exercises before he tries swinging tricks.

The important principles of falling safely should be overlearned by the performer. Slapping the mat with the arms. Slapping the mat with the back of the leg below knee, if necessary. Fingers pointed forward if falling backward. Cushioning the fall by bending the knees upon alighting. Tuck and roll forward, sideways, or backward whenever possible.

Turning forward and face the fall if possible. The breakfall is of decided value in all sports or activities in which injury from falling may occur. For example, rope climbing See p. Excellent training could be supplied by the flying rings. An individual could be pushed in such a manner that he would acquire a crooked swing which he would be forced to straighten out. Such training would develop the muscles needed by the paratrooper to prevent oscillation of the chute during descent.

See Plate 27a The traveling rings, too, could be used for this purpose. In actual parachute training, the paratrooper must master the art of: 1 Landing and falling safely; 2 Jumping from platforms and correctly learning to absorb the shock of landing; 3 Jumping from a foot tower while suspended in a harness; 4 Jumping from a tower free; 5 Sliding speedily down an inclined beam to adjust to horizontal velocity. This proves the need of upper body strength. In parachute landing, it is necessary to maintain the sitting position with the knees bent and relaxed rather than attempting to keep an upright position.

Emphasis should be made to fall and roll, release and give in all types of falls. Under no consideration should you fight the fall. Practice jumps are usually made from a height of about feet but when in combat, jumps are made from a much lower height. Importance of Leg ConditioningThe all out effort activities in the gymnastic program include development of leg exercises.

The squat jump in particular, which is a core requirement for every aviation cadet represents one of the best leg developers. Worn jumping and various rolls indicate the need of tumbling versatility. The same type of tumbling is given to cadets early in their training. This teaches them to tumble and fall in all possible body positions without injury. Body control and a sense of direction are required while in the air. The jump pictured here is similar to a backward jump from any height.

The cadet is taught to bend the upper trunk forward; use the arms and head to control upright balance while in the air; look towards the deck; land on the balls of the feet with the legs slightly apart to insure a well controlled landing. This roll requires the mastery of the following tumbling skills: 1 The controlled backward jump from a platform at a prescribed height; 2 The backward shoulder roll; 31 Falling flat in a prone position. Excellent control of the body is essential during the jump as well as the ability to respond in a well coordinated way while revolving through an inverted position.

The landing is made forcefully on the balls of the feet, knees bent. The body is in a tucked position. The arms are close to the body and the chin turned to the right and tucked to the chest. The standing position is assumed as quickly as possible on completion of the roll.

This backward roll to the side and over the shoulder shows the tucked position of the body and the equal distribution of body weight on the side of the head and shoulders. The hands, in some cases, are used to help balance and equal weight distribution. However, the principle involved is a roll without the use of the hands.

The completed roll not shown ends by keeping the hands clear of the deck, extending them to the front and at the same time clapping them together. This will control the arms and prevent injury to the elbows and arms.

The coordination of rolling while in a chute gives the second progressive stage of a backward shoulder roll. Notice the following: 1 The body assumes a tucked position. The necessity of correct procedure in falling and rolling backwards is illustrated. Perfect control of the body and excellent upper body strength are needed to successfully control the chute or complete the landing illustrated. The training received by cadets in tumbling, vaulting and climbing contributes to agility, body control, and upper body strength factors required in safe parachute landing.

This is an unusual illustration showing an approaching landing by the use of a second and emergency chute. The body will hit the ground in a seat or foot drag position. The action of the chute will cause the body to be pulled backward. The fall should be broken by the action of the knee flexion and bend.

The body then tucks and a follow through is executed by the legs as the body goes into a backward roll. The completed foot drag fall is shown. The body has been pulled off balance by the chute and the shock of hitting the deck has been taken up by the hands and bent arm position. Dragging the feet is a method of slowing down the fall and getting the body ready to absorb the landing shock. Usually there is not time enough to twist, tuck or roll. Warm Up and Conditioning A brief explanation of warm up and conditioning will be presented in an advisory manner rather than in a detailed capacity in the following chapter.

One factor that cannot be stressed too emphatically is the need for a warm up previous to participation in any activity. A warm up for vigorous exercise is needed to prepare the muscles, the joints and the entire organism for strenuous activity. It is body preparation for immediate activity.

Conditioning Conditioning is a state of body tonus. It is a prerequisite to the desired end of optimum efficiency in the execution of any activity that demands the effective physical and mental fitness of each participant. Once the cadet has conditioned himself to the sport in which he expects to participate, a thorough, progressive warm up assures responsive qualities of pliancy, flexibility, suppleness, limberness of muscles and general adaptability of the organism.

An effective warm up invigorates, stimulates and prepares a person for further more vigorous activity. It insures him against pulled muscles, and muscular strains. If an individual ceases active participation during competition and has to await his turn between events, he should maintain the body warmth that he had acquired by putting on a sweatsuit or by wrapping himself in a blanket. This precautionary procedure maintains the body heat established by the warm up. The muscles may then go into immediate action when the time comes to continue the activity or the event.

Following strenuous activity, the judicious performer manifests as much care in the tapering off process as he did in the warm up. When he is ready for the showers, he proceeds to them immediately and does not loiter, or subject himself to draughts or a sudden drop in body temperature. The cadet who uses both the warm up and tapering off procedures is likely to be the one who will require fewer visits to the training room or to the infirmary.

The type used will depend on the background of the instructor and may be allied to any particular sport or activity. A combination of Danish and German free extension exercises is recommended. These total body movements executed rhythmically are conducive to stretching the large muscle groups as well as the smaller fundamental muscle groups so necessary in the execution of gymnastic stunts.

A lesson plan for conditioning exercises is as follows: 1. Arms extension of arms and shoulders. Trunk Turning for waist. Leg Raising for pelvic region' or Balance. Trunk Sideward Bending for extension of side of trunk. Neck and Chest for loosening neck and chest. Trunk Forward Bending for extension of lower back and thighs. Heavy Leg for legs. Trunk Lowering. Abdominal for abdominal muscles. Include work where there is noted deficiency in strength usually support work or abdominals.

Stepping for legs, rhythm, balance, and agility. Breathing for tapering off in effort and relaxation. The following body positions should be used in all warm up actions : Standing. Prone and Supine. Coordination and Agility Drills The instructor gives brisk commands demanding quick reaction and response of group. The class assumes these designated positions and accomplishes the movements as fast as possible for alert execution.

Executory commands may be used as follows: 1. Running in place lifting knees high. Belly to Deck! Back to Deck! Head to Deck! Forward Roll! Backward Roll! Fall ForwardSit Through! Instructor adds others as he considers advisable. Limbering Exercises Body stretching, twisting, bending, knee bending and running in place are activities that may be employed. These exercises may be executed in a limited area and at will. For the legs, additional running in place or squat jumps should be prescribed. Totality of Musculature Included in Lesson The entire musculature should be included.

No one part should be exercised to the neglect of another. Unity of Lesson The lesson plan should proceed with logical continuity with the energy curve in mind. Progression or Change in Lesson The introduction of new exercises maintains interest and individual desire to produce better results. Obvious weaknesses and deficiencies for gymnastics, for example, the abdominals and the triceps, should be remedied by means of special work.

The Principle of the Energy Curve The exercises should proceed from the relatively easy to the strenuous and complex and upon reaching the peak of the energy curve, tapering off in effort should follow. Strength may be developed by: Push Ups, Chins, Dips and the like. Grasps must be strengthened: A tight grip should be stressed at first. The beginner should strengthen progressively the ordinary, the reverse, and combined grasps. Body Positions Should Be Mastered. Stunts as a Warm Up. Stunts may be used as a warm up as preparation for performance on apparatus.

Such a procedure may be accomplished best by using simple fundamental stunts. Instructional material from the lesson of the previous day may be used effectively for the warm up. Progression in Gymnastic Skill. All-round physical development should be encouraged: The cadet should be trained adequately both in the hang and in the support position. Thorough knowledge of elementary stunts: Effective advancement from the simple to the complex should be obtained by means of proper mastery of elementary stunts.

Building of gymnastic routines: Routines should be built from separate stunts as they are mastered. An Awareness of Safety Measures. During the first month, practice sessions should be of short duration and should include calisthenics and light workouts on the apparatus. Flexibility, organic power, agility and endurance must be built up; the hands must be toughened gradually.

Each team member should be required to practice on each piece of apparatus, regardless of individual preferences. Individual competition leads to winning.

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Winning is important but the prime purpose of any physical activity is to fully promote general all-round development. Specialization on a particular piece of apparatus to the exclusion of others hinders such a purpose of all-round achievement. After each team member has advanced in all-round ability and skill, time can be devoted to specialization.

However, it is a sound policy to encourage gymnasts to work on at least three pieces of apparatus in a meet. After the first month of practice, each member should make up a tentative optional routine of stunts on at least three pieces of apparatus. No matter how simple these activities are they should be practiced every day. The first part of each practice should be spent on the optional figures, which will be composed of stunts already mastered.

Constant repetition of the figures will build endurance and improve form. The second part of apparatus practice should be devoted to the learning of new stunts. When mastered, they can be included in the optional routine that has been tentatively planned by the performer. Thus a gymnast is never at a loss as to what he will do in a meet.

Practice sessions should be held every day, but different apparatus should be used on alternate days. Thus, interest is maintained and sore hands and staleness are prevented. If a required combination is to be part of a competition, it should be practiced every day together with the tentative optional routine.

One month before the first meet, a weekly practice meet should be held in order to brush up on the finer points of competition. The conditioning of the hands is of utmost importance. Regular workouts with progressively longer practice periods should condition the hands adequately. Whenever the hands feel tender and sore, practice should be stopped.

The bar should be kept clean at all times. See Illustration No. Calluses should be pared periodically by the trainer with a razor blade. They may then be smoothed off with emery cloth or sandpaper.

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The hands should be washed thoroughly after practice and all magnesium carbonate and resin should be removed. The hands toughen more quickly and effectively by working on various pieces of apparatus. Soreness caused by working on the high bar may be relieved by practice on the horse or the parallel bars. A specialist is forced to discontinue practice should his hands bother him. The hands may be toughened gradually by spacing practice sessions on alternate days on the same apparatus.

Application of tincture of benzoine to the palms after practice should help toughen the hands. A protecting hand guard may be worn. Also from the standpoint of protection, rings should never be worn in practice. After the competitive season is under way, efforts should be directed toward perfecting routines rather than learning new tricks.

Hints to the Competitor Concerning Continuity of a Routine 1. Use only those stunts which have been mastered completely. Avoid intermediate or extra swings. Keep routine reasonably short. Relax in all negative movements; but maintain good form even though certain muscles are relaxed. Grace of movement rather than strength should be emphasized. Rhythmical and swinging tricks are much more difficult and rate a higher score. A good start and finish to a routine makes a very favorable impression on judges.

Plan a smooth and spectacular mount and dismount. Let proper approach to the apparatus and retreat become habitual. Gymnastic and Tumbling Nomenclature The terminology in gymnastics is confusing to the novice due to the fact, perhaps, that so many sources have contributed to gymnastics. Any attempt to coordinate the different nomenclature into one acceptable to all has proved to be a difficult task. Positions and movements are usually described in relation to the apparatus upon which they are performed.

See pp. An inclined board approximately 30" x 25" covered with a cork carpet or rubber shod used for take off in connection with long horse, buck and tumbling. The inclined plane is four inches. See Plate a Range of adjustment is 36" to 57". Similar to the side horse except the body is about two feet long. The buck was invented by Eiselen. Exercises described in Turntafeln, Climbing Ropes. See Plate Ropes made of four strands of selected and durable long fiber, manila about IV2" m diameter especially designed for climbing. Ropes generally arranged in vertical, horizontal or inclined positions in reference to the deck surface.

Knotted climbing ropes have knots braided around and through the rope, eight inches apart, to aid the beginner. Philanthropinon, The oblique rope was the invention of Ling and his followers. Flying Rings. See Plate c 7" to 10" across and one inch in diameter Leather covered or rubber covered rings attached to strong, adjustable webbing straps are suspended from ceiling, and hang about 20" apart. Often called the Roman rings, which probably indicates they were originated in Italy.

The rings were described by Spiess Turnlehre in Horizontal Bar. See Plate a High Bar; Turning Bar; Chinning Bar; Vaulting Bar A steel or wood bar parallel to the deck, adjustable for height, suspended from ceiling by wire guys or held firm by pipe uprights.

Bar 1" diameter, 7' length. Adjustable vaulting bars are adjustable from two to seven and one-half feet. The horizontal bar is one of the oldest pieces of gymnastic apparatus. Jahn made popular its use. By the middle of the Nineteenth Century the steel bar replaced the wooden bar. Long Horse. See Plate A side horse without pommels, one end of which is raised for vaulting. Low Parallel Bars. See Plate Bar 7' long, 15" high, 18" wide for practicing balances, usually hand balances. See Plate b Substantial canvas covered pads with filling of 2" felt, or kapok. Manufactured in assorted lengths, widths and grades.

Mats were first mentioned by Nachtegall in In all probability, they were used when vaulting was started over the horse. Parallel Bars. See Plate 70 Standardized, adjustable, parallel hand rails made of finest grained hickory connected to the uprights. The uprights are connected by pressed steel rails oval in shape.

The rails pass under the uprights and are secured entirely within the base. Range of adjustment is from 3'9" to 5'3" in height and from 15" to 18" in width shoulder width. The parallel bars were invented by Jahn and used in his playground in Side Horse. See Plate a A leather covered cylindrical body about 14" in diameter, having two pommels or handles near the center.

The height may be adjusted and the range of adjustment is 36" to 57". See Plate c The raised handles on a horse. The horse was originated by the Romans. It was used extensively on Jahn's playground. Spring Board. See Plate b An inclined board approximately 6' x 22" extending over a fulcrum about half of its length. Constructed of ash, light in weight, rubber shod and upper end covered with cork carpet. Used for springing in connection with tumbling, horse, buck and parallel bars. Spring Beat Board. An inclined board approximately 4' x 20" designed to give less spring than the regular spring board.

The spring board was used by Jahn and described fully in Eiselen's Turnkunst, See Plate A resilient table of strong canvas, supported by springs attached to a pipe or wooden frame. Stands on inclined legs attached on the bottom about three feet high. Vaulting Bar. See Horizontal Bar, Plate No. Made of light, strong wood, the top padded with hair felt and covered with leather. Includes four lifts for adjustment of heights. Used for vaulting. Total height 49", width approximately 54".

The vaulting box was originated by Ling and his followers. Supplementary Apparatus 41Adjustable Ladders. Folds against the wall when not in use. Guts Muths and Father Jahn used the oblique ladder. Vertical ladder exercises were described by Eiselen Turntafeln in Eiselen first used the horizontal ladder which was later used by Spiess as the main apparatus for girls. A large, wheel-like, double frame made of circular 1" piping, frames spaced about 2'6" apart. The performer places feet in footrests within frame and grasps opposite sides of frame to attempt to revolve the aero wheel.

Balance Beam or Board. See Plate Single steel rail or board usually 12' x 2" upon which performer walks in balancing. Balancing upon a beam has been used for almost a century. Basedow, Guts Muths and Vieth emphasized balancing upon a beam. Ladders on which the rungs are about 6" apart.

As the performer climbs, he jiggles ladder to keep it relatively erect, striving to reach top without falling off. Balancing Stairs. See Plate 44 A small set of stairs about four to six steps built at a low angle used for hand balances and handwalks. Tables and chairs durably built for building pyramids. A backless seat which may be used in connection with stall bars to obtain effective leverages. Benches are also used for partner work. An adjustable rail about 10' x 2y2" x 8". The boom was invented by Ling. Cargo Net. See Plate One or two standard cargo nets lashed together and suspended to provide climbing practice.

Climbing Poles. Piping may be improvised for this purpose. Cheerleading is as much about who you are as what you are. A cheerleader is a leader, a role model, a friend, and an athlete. At times they are a teacher and at other times a student. It's not always easy being a cheerleader, but the rewards are many. The road to becoming a cheerleader starts with education.

Learn all you can about every part of cheerleading and you'll be off to a good start. Here are some tips for collecting the information you need:. Cheerleading is physically demanding; in fact, it can be tougher than some varsity sports. That's because cheerleaders must be as strong and flexible as gymnasts, as graceful as dancers, and have the lung capacity of runners. What's more, while athletes can grimace and sweat, cheerleaders must always have a smile on their faces and look their best. Learn as much as you can from sources like books, videos, friends, cheerleaders, and the internet.

Take some time every day to practice moves until you feel you're ready. Below are some areas to concentrate on:. Cheerleaders are, by definition, positive people. They are also:. In addition, a good cheerleader must have:. Talk to the coach or adviser of the squad you're trying out for and find out the requirements. If possible, talk to current cheerleaders. admin